Cafe Scientifique

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Cells and Gels for Lower Back Pain

Monday 3 December

This interactive hands on session will include a short talk and demonstration on how researchers at Sheffield Hallam University are developing a temperature sensitive gel which can be used to cure low back pain. The presentation will explain how the shock absorbers in your spine fail and cause low back pain. The potential of stem cells and novel gels to repair these tissues.

What are Black Holes?

Monday 7 January

This session has, in part, been organised to celebrate the life of Stephen Hawking, who died in 2018.It’s about the four forces that control the universe.

Each force shores up a dying star and if a star has a critical mass it has a different death with very large stars imploding as the gravity force overwhelms all other forces and creates what we believe is a black hole.

Why do some stars end up as neutron stars or white dwarfs?

And others as black holes?

How can we even see a black hole of no light can ever escape?

What is the event horizon and why and how can a black hole function as an x ray source?


Steven Cutts is a doctor and science writer.

He has given over fifty popular science lectures around the country.

In this talk he discusses the life cycles of stars, the four forces that control our universe and the physics behind white dwarfs and black holes.

The Beauty of Visual Illusions

Monday 4 February

Visual illusions are fun. You can create beautiful illusions by playing with colours, light and patterns to produce images that can be deceptive or misleading to our brains. Visual illusions are very appealing: the celebrated “dress colour” puzzle went viral over the web in 2015. However, this is not a recent trend: there is evidence that it is since (at least) the Palaeolithic era that people are attracted to visual illusions.

Moreover, Visual illusions are theoretically interesting because they reveal the disagreement between our eyes and our brains. Besides being fun, this “disagreement” is useful to scientists as a way of exploring the functioning of the brain. Visual illusions must come from the visual system itself as they are systematic, not random. They constitute a sort of signature of the visual software employed by the brain. Thus, the overall pattern of illusions provides a powerful constraint on theories of visual perception. They help the understanding of the underling mechanisms of the brain.

Interestingly, artists included visual illusions in their works long before scientists understood the mechanisms behind them. This is particularly true of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) who was interested in both the analysis of physical phenomena as well as perception of these phenomena. For example, the Mona Lisa is the most-visited, most written about and most parodied work of ‎art in the world. However, the ‘uncatchable smile’ that makes Leonardo da Vinci’s ‎Mona Lisa so special may be due to a visual illusion of direction affecting the mouth of the Mona Lisa. When viewed directly the slant of her ‎mouth appears to turn downwards, but when viewed in peripheral vision the edges ‎of her mouth take an upward turn. ‎This generates a perception of a dynamic mental state. Therefore, the collaboration between artists and scientists is very valuable; although from different viewpoints and for different purposes, they are both interested in understanding the disagreement between the eyes and the brain.


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